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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in carbon monoxide poisoning in pregnancy: Maternal and fetal outcome

  • Abdullah Arslan
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine, Meram, 42080 Konya, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine, Konya, Turkey
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Published:January 10, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.01.007

      Abstract

      Objective

      Closer monitoring and treatment is vital for pregnant carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cases due to fetal poisoning component. Permanent damage can occur in both the mother and the baby. It may cause stillbirth even though no serious clinical symptoms occur in the mother. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is advised for all pregnant patients regardless of their clinical symptoms. Pregnant CO poisoning patients that received HBO treatment and their fetal status were evaluated in this study.

      Methods

      Pregnant patients poisoned with CO treated in the same hyperbaric clinic were evaluated. Pregnant patients that received HBO treatment in a multiplace chamber were evaluated in terms of clinical status, demographic structure, laboratory tests, fetal effects and progress of the fetus until birth and 6 months postpartum.

      Results

      A total number of 32 pregnant cases were treated. COHb values were over 20% (min 6.9- max 40.2) in 23 patients, 11 patients had a history of syncope. All patients took HBO treatment under 2.4 ATA pressure for 120 min. 3 patients received more than 1 session of HBO treatments due to fetal stress; all other cases took 1 session of HBO treatment. No spontaneous abortus occurred in early follow-ups; only 4 babies were born prematurely. 2 of the babies were lost in the early phases after birth, due to causes non-related to CO poisoning complications (cyanotic heart disease, necrotising enterocolitis). No significant difference were observed in the comparison of laboratory results of patients with syncope and of those who did not have syncope and comparison of patients with COHb value higher than 20% and patients with COHb value lower than 20% (p > 0.05).

      Conclusion

      HBO is not advisable for pregnant patients except for CO poisoning. In this study it is observed that HBO treatment under 2.4 ATA pressure for 120 min has no harmful effects on the mother and the fetus. It is observed that continuation of HBO treatment in the cases with fetal distress findings has beneficial effects. COHb levels and syncope were shown to have no significant effect on clinical symptoms and on blood tests.

      Keywords

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