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Infection control for health care workers caring for critically injured patients: A national survey

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      Abstract

      Prevention of transmission of bloodborne pathogens to health care workers (HCWs) involved in resuscitation of critically injured patients presents special challenges. As a step toward creation of a standard, a telephone survey of the infection control practices in this setting of the 100 busiest EDs in the United States (US) was performed. Departmental staff who were knowledgeable about ED infection prevention protocols were questioned about general policy, barrier protection measures, sharps management, and educational programs directed to HCWs. Surveys were completed for 82 EDs. Of these, 56 (68%) either function as primary trauma care facilities for the local community, or are designated level 1 trauma centers by the American College of Surgeons. Specific infection control protocols for trauma resuscitation had been printed and posted by 18 EDs (22%), with the remaining 64 (78%) using the same universal precautions for care of the severely injured as for other patients. A specific policy relating to invasive procedures had been promulgated by 66 EDs (80%). Barrier protection was used by protocol or by custom for care of all critically injured patients by 43 EDs (52%). Impermeable gowns with sleeves were available in 63 EDs (77%). Eye or face protection included face shields by 74 EDs (90%), face masks by 76 EDs (93%), and goggles by 72 EDs (88%). Only 59 EDs (72%) reported that sharp containers were always within arm's reach of HCWs with material to discard. Specially adapted equipment included self-sheathing intravenous catheters (21, 26%) and needle/syringe combinations (16, 20%). Considerable variation exists in infection control practices in busy US EDs during resuscitation of critically injured patients. Modalities used include education, strategies for handling contaminated material, protective garb, and equipment specially adapted to minimize exposure. EDs should give careful consideration to organizing resuscitation of critically injured patients to minimize risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens to HCWs.

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