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- Citing deaths in police custody, ACLU of Colorado calls for limits on use of electroshock weapons.ACLU Library, 2004 (Accessed November 1, 2005 at)
- Excessive and lethal force? Amnesty International's concerns about deaths and ill-treatment involving police use of TASER's.Amnesty International Library, 2004 (Accessed November 1, 2005 at)
- Deaths in police custody: an 8 month surveillance study.Annals Emerg Med. 2005; 46: S94
- New York Times, New York, NY2005: Sec A:24 Demands rise for tighter oversight on use of stun guns.
- Taser safety claim questioned.Arizona Republic, 2004 (Accessed November 1, 2005 at)
- 73 cases of death following stun gun use.Arizona Republic, 2004 (Accessed November 1, 2005 at)
- Taser shocks ruled cause of death.Arizona Republic, 2005 (Accessed June 4, 2007 at)
- Cardiac monitoring of human subjects exposed to the TASER.J Emerg Med. 2007; 33: 113-117
- Cardiovascular and physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon discharge in resting adults.Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 589-595
- Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium.Am J Emerg Med. 2001; 21: 187-191
- Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures.For Sci Intl. 2006; 161: 20-30
- Madison police department TASER report.Wisconsin Police Department, Madison2005 (Accessed April 19, 2007 at)
- Department of defense directive 3000.3 policy for nonlethal weapons.United States Department of Defense, 1996 (Accessed November 1, 2005 at)
- Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series.Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6: 239-243
- Physiological damage and stress of a competitive NCAA division 1 football game.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: S320
- Independent elevations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponins in endurance athletes after prolonged strenuous exercise.Am Heart J. 2005; 150: 1128-1134
- Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures.Forensic Sci Int. 2007; (in press, accessed April 14, 2007 at:)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.12.003
- Re: Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures.Forensic Sci Int. 2007; 168: e19
- Respiratory effect of prolonged electrical weapon application on human volunteers.Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14: 197-201
- Excited delirium syndrome cause of death and prevention.1st ed. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton (Fla)2006
- Sudden deaths in custody.2006 ([Totowa (NJ)])
Anonymous. Standard BMI calculator. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (Accessed January 12, 2007 at: http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/).
- Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community.CMAJ. 1998; 158: 1603-1607
☆Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, May 2007, Chicago, IL, and at the 4th Annual Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress, September 2007, Sorrento, Italy.
☆☆Partial funding of this project was provided by TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ, which paid for the cost of data analysis equipment and statistical software.