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- Emergency department crowding: old problem, new solutions.Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2006; 24: 821-837
- Managing emergency department overcrowding.Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009; 27: 593-603
- Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions.Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52: 126-136
- Estimating the degree of emergency department overcrowding in academic medical centers: results of the National ED Overcrowding Study (NEDOCS).Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11: 38-50
- An independent evaluation of four quantitative Emergency Department Crowding Scales.Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 1204-1211
- Comparison of the national emergency department overcrowding scale and the emergency department work index for quantifying emergency department crowding.Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 513-518
- Measuring emergency department crowding in an inner city hospital in The Netherlands.Int J Emerg Med. 2013; 6: 21
- The emergency department occupancy rate: a simple measure of emergency department crowding?.Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51: 15-24
- Emergency department crowding as a health policy issue: past development, future directions.Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 40: 388-393
- Measures of crowding in the emergency department: a systematic review.Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18: 527-538
- Recall (report) bias and reliability in the retrospective assessment of melanoma risk.Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 133: 240-245
- Measurement of lifetime alcohol intake: utility of a self-administered questionnaire.Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 159: 809-817
- Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health.Emerg Med J. 2003; 20: 402
- Crowding delays treatment and lengthens emergency department length of stay, even among high-acuity patients.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54: 492-503
- Frequent overcrowding in US emergency departments.Acad Emerg Med. 2001; 8: 151-155
- Relationship between the national ED overcrowding scale and the number of patients who leave without being seen in an academic ED.Am J Emerg Med. 2005; 23: 288-294
- The effect of emergency department crowding on clinically oriented outcomes.Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 16: 1-10
- Association between waiting times and short term mortality and hospital admission after departure from emergency department: population based cohort study from Ontario, Canada.Br Med J. 2011; 342: D2983
- Return visit characteristics among patients who leave without being seen from a pediatric ED.Am J Emerg Med. 2012; 30: 1019-1024
- Ahmed NPerceptions and realities of testing for alcohol and other drugs in trauma patients.J Trauma. 2007; 63: 1370-1373
- Validity, reliability, and applicability of seven definitions of hip osteoarthritis used in epidemiological studies: a systematic appraisal.Ann Rheum Dis. 2004; 63: 226-232
- Hospital factors associated with emergency center patients leaving without being seen.Am J Emerg Med. 2000; 18: 767-772
- Intervention to decrease emergency department crowding: does it have an effect on return visits and hospital readmissions?.Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 41: 173-185
- Emergency department overcrowding, mortality and the 4-hour rule in Western Australia.Med J Aust. 2012; 196: 122-126
☆Source(s) of support in the form of equipment, drugs, or grants (including grant numbers): None.
☆☆Competing interests: N/A.
★Author contributions: HW and RDR conceived the study and developed the design in consultation with all of the authors. KB, CAH, BB, KW, and NCW assembled the data set and collected the data. HW, RDR, RDJ, and NRZ conducted the statistical analyses and drafted the article, and all authors read and approved the final manuscript. HW takes responsibility for the manuscript as a whole.