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Changing epidemiology and management of infectious diseases in US EDs

Published:March 11, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2016.03.024

      Abstract

      Background

      The rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is believed to have influenced the emergency department (ED) epidemiology and management of infectious diseases (IDs) since 2000.

      Methods

      Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2000 to 2010 were used to examine temporal trends in the incidence of IDs presenting to EDs. Outcome measures included national visit rates, visit proportions, and antimicrobial prescriptions for all ID primary diagnoses, as well as for specific organ systems of interest (respiratory tract, skin/soft tissue, and urinary tract).

      Results

      An ID-related primary diagnosis was given in 18.3% (95% confidence interval, 17.9%-18.8%) of all ED visits during the study period. The hospitalization rate for these conditions is 7.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.3%-8.3%). The share of macrolide prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections increased by 34% and 46%, respectively, and that of quinolone prescription for lower respiratory tract infections doubled from 9% to 18.4% during the study period. Management of skin and soft tissue infections shifted from predominant use of cephalosporins to sulfonamides. For UTIs, quinolones were most commonly prescribed, with an increasing use of third-generation cephalosporins. Antibiotics were more frequently prescribed to patients who are white compared with (white: 60%, black: 57%, other races: 52%, P < .05).

      Conclusion

      The changing epidemiology of IDs diagnosed in US EDs reflects national trends in emerging pathogens and drug resistance. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are being prescribed at increasing rates. There are significant demographic disparities in nationwide antibiotic prescription practices.
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