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- The 2007 model of the clinical practice of emergency medicine: the 2009 update.Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 57: e1-e15
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Program Requirements for Graduate Medical Education in Emergency Medicine. Available at: https://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/110_emergency_medicine_2016.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2017.
- Basic standards for residency training in emergency medicine.(Available at: https://www.osteopathic.org/inside-aoa/accreditation/postdoctoral-training-approval/postdoctoral-training-standards/Documents/Basic-Standards-Emergency-Medicine.pdf. Accessed)September 18, 2017
- State operations manual appendix a - survey protocol, regulations and interpretive guidelines for hospitals.(Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/som107ap_a_hospitals.pdf. Accessed)September 18, 2017
- Clinical policy: procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 2014; 63: 247-258
- Clinical practice guideline for emergency department ketamine dissociative sedation: 2011 update.Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 57: 449-461
- Procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: recommendations for physician credentialing, privileging, and practice.Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 58: 365-370
- Fasting and emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia: a consensus-based clinical practice advisory.Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49: 454-461
- Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. An updated report by the american society of anesthesiologists task force on sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists.Anesthesiology. 2002; 96: 1004-1017
- AANA-ASA Joint Position Statement Regarding Propofol Administration.(Available at: https://www.aana.com/resources2/professionalpractice/Documents/PPM%20PS%20Joint%20AANA-ASA%20Propofol.pdf. Accessed)September 18, 2017
- Impact of provider specialty on pediatric procedural sedation complication rates.Pediatrics. 2011; 127e1154
- The incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia with propofol for procedures outside the operating room: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium.Anesth Analg. 2009; 108: 795-804
- Predictors of airway and respiratory adverse events with ketamine sedation in the emergency department: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of 8,282 children.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54158-68.e1-4
- Predictors of emesis and recovery agitation with emergency department ketamine sedation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of 8,282 children.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54171-80.e1-4
- Efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction of propofol for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: a prospective study.CJEM. 2007; 9: 421-427
- Emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia: A Canadian Community Effectiveness and Safety Study (ACCESS).CJEM. 2006; 2006: 94-99
- Procedural sedation and analgesia outcomes in children after discharge from the emergency department: ketamine versus fentanyl/midazolam.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54: e1-4
- Pediatric procedural sedation in the community emergency department results from the ProSCED registry.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007; 23: 218-222
- Propofol for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia: a tale of three centers.Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 24-30
- Propofol for deep procedural sedation in the ED.Am J Emerg Med. 2005; 23: 190-195
- The use of propofol for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: a comparison with midazolam.Emerg Med J. 2011; 28: 861-865
- Randomized clinical trial of etomidate versus propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49: 15-22
- Safe and efficacious use of procedural sedation and analgesia by nonanesthesiologists in a pediatric emergency department.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003; 157: 1090-1096
- Safety and clinical effectiveness of midazolam versus propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department: a systematic review.Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15: 1-8
- Sedation for cardioversion in the emergency department: analysis of effectiveness in four protocols.Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 42: 767-772
- Randomized controlled trial of ketamine/propofol versus propofol alone for emergency department procedural sedation.Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 57: 435-441
- Adverse events associated with procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department: a comparison of common parenteral drugs.Acad Emerg Med. 2005; 12: 508-513
- Ketamine in adult emergency medicine: controversies and recent advances.Ann Pharmacother. 2011; 45: 1525-1534
- Ketamine⁄Propofol versus midazolam⁄fentanyl for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18: 800-806
- The safety of single-physician procedural sedation in the emergency department.Emerg Med J. 2006; 23: 922-923
- Sedation-assisted orthopedic reduction in emergency medicine: the safety and success of a one physician/one nurse model.West J Emerg Med. 2013; 14: 47-54
- Clinical practice advisory: emergency department procedural sedation with propofol.Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: 182-187
- Nurse-administered propofol sedation without anesthesia specialists in 9152 endoscopic cases in an ambulatory surgery center.Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 1744-1750
- Propofol sedation during endoscopic procedures: safe and effective administration by registered nurses supervised by endoscopists.Endoscopy. 2006; 38: 360-367
- Trained registered nurses/endoscopy teams can administer propofol safely for endoscopy.Gastroenterology. 2005; 129: 1384-1391
☆Prior presentations: An abstract of this study was presented at the American College of Emergency Physicians Research Forum, Washington, DC, October, 2017.
☆☆Funding sources/disclosures: None.
★CPJ reports no conflict of interest.
★★DRV reports no conflict of interest.