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Comparative analysis of incapacitated versus forcible sexual assault in a community-based population

  • Author Footnotes
    1 25 Sheldon Blvd. SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Linda Rossman
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    1 25 Sheldon Blvd. SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    YWCA West Central Michigan Nurse Examiner Program, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 25 Sheldon Blvd. SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Stephanie Solis
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    1 25 Sheldon Blvd. SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
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    YWCA West Central Michigan Nurse Examiner Program, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Lindsey Ouellette
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    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    3 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Brook Woolley
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    3 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, United States
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  • Colleen Bush
    Affiliations
    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, United States

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Spectrum Health Hospitals, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • J.S. Jones
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, United States

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Spectrum Health Hospitals, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 25 Sheldon Blvd. SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    3 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
Published:April 03, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.03.083
      The US Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women released an updated and more inclusive definition of rape in 2012. That definition, “The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim,” is inclusive of all genders and recognizes that victims are sometimes unable to give consent due to temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity [
      • The United States Department of Justice Archives
      An updated definition of rape.
      ]. Recently, more studies have begun to examine the association between victim substance use and rape [
      • Lawyer S.
      • Resnick H.
      • Bakanic V.
      • et al.
      Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate women.
      ,
      • Littleton H.
      • Grills-Taquechel A.
      • Axsom D.
      Impaired and incapacitated rape victims: assault characteristics and post-assault experiences.
      ,
      • McCauley J.L.
      • Conoscenti L.M.
      • Ruggiero K.J.
      • et al.
      Prevalence and correlates of drug/alcohol-facilitated and incapacitated sexual assault in a nationally representative sample of adolescent girls.
      ]. Many studies however, have failed to distinguish between assaults that occur directly because of drug-facilitated sexual assault and those accomplished through perpetrator force. To gain additional insight into the distinction between forcible and incapacitated rape we compared women's descriptions of incidents involving these different assaults. We hypothesized that incapacitated rapes would be more likely to originate out of a bar or party situation, more likely to include a perpetrator who was also using alcohol or drugs and less likely to involve a perpetrator with whom the woman had previously had sexual intercourse. We also speculated that less perpetrator force would be required when the victim was incapacitated and, thus, there would be less resistance from and less injury to the victim.

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      References

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        An updated definition of rape.
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