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What biomechanical factors are more important in compression depth for children lifesavers? A randomized crossover study

  • Martín Otero-Agra
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Campus de A Xunqueira s/n, CP: 36005 Pontevedra, Spain.
    Affiliations
    REMOSS Research Group, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain

    Nursing University School of Pontevedra, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
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  • Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
    Affiliations
    CLINURSID Network Research, Department of Psychiatry, Radiology and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    Paediatric Emergency and Critical Care Division, Clinical University Hospital, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    Institute of Research of Santiago (IDIS) and SAMID Network, Spain
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  • Ezequiel Rey
    Affiliations
    REMOSS Research Group, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
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  • Cristian Abelairas-Gómez
    Affiliations
    CLINURSID Network Research, Department of Psychiatry, Radiology and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    Institute of Research of Santiago (IDIS) and SAMID Network, Spain

    Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • Iker Besada-Saavedra
    Affiliations
    REMOSS Research Group, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
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  • Ana Pilar Antón-Ogando
    Affiliations
    REMOSS Research Group, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
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  • Sergio López-García
    Affiliations
    Faculty of Education, Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
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  • José Luis Martín-Conty
    Affiliations
    Nursing University School of Toledo, University of Castilla la Mancha, Toledo, Spain
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  • Roberto Barcala-Furelos
    Affiliations
    REMOSS Research Group, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain

    CLINURSID Network Research, Department of Psychiatry, Radiology and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    Institute of Research of Santiago (IDIS) and SAMID Network, Spain
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      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the biomechanical aspects involved in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation's compression depth by children.

      Methods

      A randomized crossover study with 196 children between 9 and 14 years-old was conducted. The children performed four CPR hands-only tests of 1 min in four different heights (floor, 5 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm). Anthropometric, angulation and quality of CPR variables were registered during the tests.

      Results

      CPR quality was sub-optimal in all tests. Tests with the simulated victim placed on the floor had the best compression quality. Children that made deeper compressions had significantly higher values in all anthropometric variables. Analysis gives more discriminatory power to the anthropometric variables than angulation variables on compression depth.

      Conclusion

      Chest compression depth obtained by children depends more on their anthropometric characteristics than on their body position. The approximate age to perform compressions with an acceptable quality is 12 years-old. The use of steps increased arm angle, getting it closer to 90° but did not increase quality CPR when compared with performance on the floor.

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