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Preparation of lifeguards to Basic Life Support in the drowning

Published:August 07, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.08.008
      A lifeguard needs to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the drowning with breath absence as soon as possible, even before taking them out from water [
      • Truhlář A.
      • Deakin C.D.
      • Soar J.
      • Khalifa G.E.A.
      • Alfonzo A.
      • Bierens J.J.L.
      • et al.
      European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 4. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances.
      ]. First Aid/CPR/AED knowledge and skills should be taught during the Lifeguard Candidates (LC) training [
      • American Red Cross
      Lifeguarding Manual.
      ] rather than later on a first aid course or a qualified first aid course (QFAC). Currently in Poland, one can participate in QFAC even several months after completing the lifeguard training [
      • Tabaczek-Bejster I.
      • Kiszka J.
      • Ozga D.
      Is the water rescue service in Poland heading in the right direction? Preparing lifeguards to the standards of first aid in Europe.
      ]. The American Red Cross, lifeguarding training provider in the US requires certified refresher First Aid/CPR/AED training every two years [

      American Red Cross. n.d. Lifeguard preparation. Become a lifeguard https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/lifeguarding/lifeguard-preparation (accessed April 19, 2018).

      ]. Research conducted in New Zealand among Professional Lifeguards (PL) indicates that the effectiveness of CPR training is high within 3 months after its completion [
      • Moran K.
      • Webber J.
      Surf lifeguard perceptions and practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).
      ]. However, Queiroga et al. suggests the first aid refresher once a year before every summer season to improve lifeguard preparation to CPR/AED [
      • Queiroga A.C.
      • Barcala-Furelos R.
      • Abelairas-Gómez C.
      • Farto-Ramírez Ó.
      • Prieto-Saborit J.A.
      • Rodríguez-Núñez A.
      Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality among lifeguards: self-perception, knowledge, and performance.
      ]. In South Korea and Poland, the lifeguard training system in the first aid differs from that in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany - the countries associated with the International Life Saving Federation (ILS) [
      • Kim K.B.
      • Lee J.H.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Seok K.H.
      • Choi Y.S.
      Improvement plan on marine lifesaving educational course in Korea: comparison with the status of the foreign marine leisure safety education groups.
      ]. Training system requires standardization in all ILS members.

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      References

        • Truhlář A.
        • Deakin C.D.
        • Soar J.
        • Khalifa G.E.A.
        • Alfonzo A.
        • Bierens J.J.L.
        • et al.
        European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 4. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances.
        Resuscitation. 2015; 95: 148-201
        • American Red Cross
        Lifeguarding Manual.
        The American National Red Cross, 2016
        • Tabaczek-Bejster I.
        • Kiszka J.
        • Ozga D.
        Is the water rescue service in Poland heading in the right direction? Preparing lifeguards to the standards of first aid in Europe.
        Wilderness Environ Med. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2018.01.010
      1. American Red Cross. n.d. Lifeguard preparation. Become a lifeguard https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/lifeguarding/lifeguard-preparation (accessed April 19, 2018).

        • Moran K.
        • Webber J.
        Surf lifeguard perceptions and practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).
        Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2012; 6: 24-34
        • Queiroga A.C.
        • Barcala-Furelos R.
        • Abelairas-Gómez C.
        • Farto-Ramírez Ó.
        • Prieto-Saborit J.A.
        • Rodríguez-Núñez A.
        Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality among lifeguards: self-perception, knowledge, and performance.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2014; 32: 1429-1430https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.08.077
        • Kim K.B.
        • Lee J.H.
        • Kim S.G.
        • Seok K.H.
        • Choi Y.S.
        Improvement plan on marine lifesaving educational course in Korea: comparison with the status of the foreign marine leisure safety education groups.
        J Coast Res. 2017; : 26-29https://doi.org/10.2112/SI79-006.1