Abbreviations:ED (emergency department), GEE (generalized estimating equations), ICD-9 (International Classification of Disease, 9th revision), KPSC (Kaiser Permanente Southern California), MME (morphine milligram equivalents)
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☆Funding source: This research was supported by a grant from the Regional Research Committee of Kaiser Permanente Southern California ( KP-RRC-20160401 ).
☆Presentations: Poster presentation at Pediatric Hospital Medicine, July 22, 2017 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
☆Competing interests: All authors have no competing interests to declare.
☆Declarations of interest: None.