To evaluate the prevalence of bacteremia and antimicrobial resistance, and associated
factors among infectious patients transferred from long-term care hospitals (LTCHs).
Consecutive adult patients who were transferred for suspected infection from affiliated
LTCH's to study hospital emergency department (ED) over a 12 month period from January
to December 2016 were included retrospectively. Patients with positive blood cultures
(excluding contaminants as clinically determined) were defined as primary measure
and subjected to further analysis according to antimicrobial resistance pattern. The
latter was categorized into 4 subgroups based on groups of antimicrobial choices for
empiric choices of suspected bloodstream infections. R-Group 0: bacteria susceptible
to penicillin and amoxicillin; R-Group 1: bacteria resistant to penicillin/amoxicillin,
first, second, or third generation cephalosporins. R-Group 2: ESBL-producing bacteria
or bacteria resistant methicillin, fourth generation cephalosporin, or fluoroquinolone.
R-Group 3: highly resistant pathogens including vancomycin resistant enterococci,
carbapenem or colistin resistant Gram negatives. Blood culture isolate could therefore
be included in >1 group.
Among 756 patients who were transferred from LTCHs, we excluded 278 patients who were
not suspicious of infection and 65 patients who were not checked blood culture at
ED. In total, 422 patients were enrolled. The incidence of bacteremia was 20.4% (n = 86).
The most frequent pathogen was E. coli (n = 25) followed by S. aureus (n = 10), S. epidermidis (n = 8), and K. pneumonia (n = 6). The incidences of the R-Group 1, 2, and 3 groups were 16.8% (n = 71), 14.4%
(n = 61), and 1.4% (n = 6), respectively. Of the Gram-positive pathogens (n = 44),
the R-Group 1, 2, and 3 groups were 84.1% (n = 37), 75.0% (n = 33), and 9.1% (n = 4),
respectively. Of the Gram-negative pathogens (n = 46), the R-Group 1, 2, and 3 groups
were 82.6% (n = 38), 69.6% (n = 32), and 4.3% (n = 2), respectively. Among tested
variables, initial serum procalcitonin level was significantly associated with the
presence of bacteremia (AOR 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.05), R-Group 1 (1.04,
1.01–1.07) and the R-Group 2 (1.04, 1.00–1.06).
The prevalence of bloodstream infections in patients admitted from LTCH was high (20.4%)
with majority of these infections from resistant bacteria. Procalcitonin levels were
significantly higher in bacteremic patients with an increasing trend towards bacteria
in the antimicrobial resistant groups.