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- Ambulatory medical care utilzation estimates for 2007.Vital Health Stat 13. 2011; : 1-38
- National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2007 Summary.National Health Statistics Reports; no 29. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD2010
- Community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to an intensive care unit: a descriptive study.Medicine (Baltimore). 2007; 86: 103-111
- A comparative study of community-acquired pneumonia patients admitted to the ward and the ICU.Chest. 2008; 133: 610-617
- Rehospitalizations among patients in the Medicare fee-for-service program.N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1418-1428
- The burden of community-acquired pneumonia in seniors: results of a population-based study.Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39: 1642-1650
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- New perspectives on community-acquired pneumonia in 388 406 patients. Results from a nationwide mandatory performance measurement programme in healthcare quality.Thorax. 2009; 64: 1062-1069
- Burden of community-acquired pneumonia in North American adults.Postgrad Med. 2010; 122: 130-141
Joint Commission. Pneumonia Measures. http://www.jointcommission.org/pneumonia/ Accessed September 7, 2012.
Gesensway D. New thinking on antibiotic timing in CAP patients. Today's Hospitalist. March 2008. www.todayshospitalist.com/index.php?b=articles_read&cnt=526. Accessed August 30, 2012.
- Effect of emergency department crowding on pneumonia admission care components.Am J Manag Care. 2011; 17: 269-278
- Diagnosis and management of pneumonia in the emergency department.Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008; 22: 53-72
- Clinical policy: critical issues in the management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with community-acquired pneumonia.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54: 704-731
- Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: S27-S72
Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), US Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance for industry, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: developing drugs for treatment (draft guidance). Rockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services; March 2009.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from more than 10,000 patients with infectious respiratory diseases: a 25-year longitudinal study.J Infect Chemother. 2009; 15: 347-360
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Asia: report from the Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS) study, 2009-2010.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011; 38: 376-383
- Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis respiratory tract isolates: results of the Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study, 1997 to 2002.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003; 47: 1875-1881
Critchley I, Biek D, Sader H, Jones RN, Krause K. Evaluation of pneumococci from the United States (USA) pediatric patients isolated during the 2009 AWARE program (abstract G3-180). 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; 2011 September 17-20; Chicago, IL.
- Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 as a cause of necrotising community-onset pneumonia.Lancet. 2009; 9: 384-392
- Combating antimicrobial resistance: policy recommendations to save lives.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: S397-S428
- Changing epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 2004-2005.Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48: e23-e33
- Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006; 12: 31-41
Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/abcs/reports-findings/survreports/spneu07.pdf. Accessed April 6, 2012.
Jenkins SG, Farrell DJ. Increase in pneumococcus macrolide resistance, United States. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2009 August. http://wwwns.cdc.goc/eid/article/15/8/08-1187.htm. Accessed April 6, 2012.
- Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 3703-3708
- Direct and indirect effects of routine vaccination of children with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, United States, 1998-2003.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005; 54: 893-897
- Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.JAMA. 2005; 294: 2043-2051
- Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1737-1746
- Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Dallas, TX, children from 1999 through 2005.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007; 26: 461-467
- Emergence of 19A as virulent and multidrug resistant Pneumococcus in Massachusetts following universal immunization of infants with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007; 26: 468-472
- Increased penicillin nonsusceptibility of nonvaccine-serotype invasive pneumococci other than serotypes 19A and 6A in post-7-valent conjugate vaccine era.J Infect Dis. 2010; 201: 770-775
- Increased antimicrobial resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pediatric population after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the United States.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007; 26: 123-128
- Population snapshot of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the United States, 2005.J Infect Dis. 2008; 197: 1016-1027
- Analysis and presentation of cumulative antibiograms: a new consensus guideline from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: 867-873
- The utility of hospital antibiograms as tools for guiding empiric therapy and tracking resistance. Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.Pharmacotherapy. 2007; 27: 1306-1312
Jacobs MR, Bajaksouzian S, Good CE, Windau AR, Gonzalez B. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes following introduction of the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine [poster G3-773]. Presented at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 17-20, 2011; Chicago, IL.
- Serotype 19A is the most common serotype causing invasive pneumococcal infections in children.Pediatrics. 2010; 125: 429-436
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired pneumonia: an evolving relationship.Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: 1134-1136
- Increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among patients admitted to United States hospitals from community settings.in: Poster presented at the 49th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 12-15, 2009; San Francisco, CA2009
- Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in children in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistance at Texas Children's Hospital.Pediatr Infect Dis. 2011; 30: 545-550
- Radiological findings of community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus pediatric pneumonia in Hawaii.Pediatr Radiol. 2010; 40: 1768-1773
- Integrated analysis of FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2: randomized, double-blinded, multicenter phase 3 trials of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 51: 1395-1405
- Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as an etiology of community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: 1126-1133
- Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in adult patients: a consensus review of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009; 66: 82-98
- Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46: S378-S385
- Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States.JAMA. 2007; 298: 1763-1771
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department.N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 666-674
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired skin infections.Emerg Infect Dis. 2005; 11: 928-930
- Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51: 291-298
- Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections in US emergency department patients, 2004 and 2008.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53: 144-149
- Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin and wound infections in the United States 2005-07: laboratory-based surveillance study.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62: 109-115
- Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic.Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010; 23: 616-687
- Severe community-onset pneumonia in healthy adults caused by methicillin-resitant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes.Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 40: 100-107
- Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season.Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12: 894-899
- Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia during the 2006 to 2007 influenza season.Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53: 358-365
- Staphylococcus aureus community-onset pneumonia in patients admitted to children's hospitals during autumn and winter of 2006-07.Epidemiol Infect. 2010; 138: 666-672
- Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: e18-e55
- Vancomycin therapeutic guidelines: a summary of consensus recommendations from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49: 325-327
- The cost of treating community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Ther. 1998; 20: 820-837
- Hospital admission decision for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: variability among physicians in an emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 2012; 59: 35-41
- A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia.N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 243-250
- Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study.Thorax. 2003; 58: 377-382
- Severity assessment tools for predicting mortality in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Systematic review and meta-analysis.Thorax. 2010; 65: 878-883
- Value of severity scales in predicting mortality from community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis.Thorax. 2010; 65: 884-890
- SMART-COP: a tool for predicting the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47: 375-384
- Venous pH can safely replace arterial pH in the initial evaluation of patients in the emergency department.Emerg Med J. 2001; 18: 340-342
- Validation of the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society 2007 guidelines for severe community-acquired pneumonia.Crit Care Med. 2009; 37: 3010-3016
- Severe community-acquired pneumonia: validation of the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines to predict an intensive care unit admission.Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48: 377-385
- Validation of the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society minor criteria for intensive care unit admission in community-acquired pneumonia patients without major criteria or contraindications to intensive care unit care.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53: 503-511
- Pneumonia, Chapter 75: In: Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice. 7th ed. Mosby/Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA2010
- Evidence-based guidelines for evaluation and antimicrobial therapy for common emergency department infections.Emerg Med Pract. 2012; 14: 1-28
- High-resolution computed tomography for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Infect Dis. 1998; 27: 358-363
- Lung ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pneumonia in the emergency department.Emerg Med J. 2012; 29: 19-23
- Evaluation of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in the ED.Am J Emerg Med. 2009; 27: 379-384
- Absolute lymphocyte count in the emergency department predicts a low CD4 count in admitted HIV-positive patients.Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18: 385-389
- Diagnostic tests for agents of community-acquired pneumonia.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: S296-S304
- Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study.Thorax. 2005; 60: 672-678
- Point-of-care urinary pneumococcal antigen test in the emergency department for community acquired pneumonia.Emerg Med J. 2008; 25: 144-148
- Multicenter study of hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-ICU patients.Chest. 2005; 127: 213-219
- Strengths and weaknesses of FDA-approved/cleared diagnostic devices for the molecular detection of respiratory pathogens.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: S312-S325
- A meta-analysis of point-of-care laboratory tests in the diagnosis of novel 2009 swine-lineage pandemic influenza A (H1N1).Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011; 69: 410-418
- Rapid-test sensitivity for novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans.N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 728-729
- Respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia.Chest. 2010; 138: 811-816
- Molecular laboratory tests for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infection due to Staphylococcus aureus.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: S361-S366
US Food and Drug Administration. FDA expands use for FilmArray Respiratory Panel. Press release. May 15, 2012. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm304177.htm. Accessed June 12, 2012.
- Ibis T5000: a universal biosensor approach for microbiology.Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6: 553-558
- Rapid identification and strain-typing of respiratory pathogens for epidemic surveillance.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005; 102: 8012-8017
- Are we ready for novel detection methods to treat respiratory pathogens in hospital-acquired pneumonia?.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: S373-S383
- Impact of rapid detection of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction for patients with lower respiratory tract infection.Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41: 1438-1444
- Effect of procalcitonin-based guidelines vs standard guidelines on antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infections: the ProHOSP randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2009; 302: 1059-1066
- Procalcitonin guidance for reduction of antibiotic use in low-risk outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.Respirology. 2011; 16: 819-824
- Risk prediction with procalcitonin and clinical rules in community-acquired pneumonia.Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52: 48-58
- Validation of a clinical score for assessing the risk of resistant pathogens in patients with pneumonia presenting to the emergency department.Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: 193-198
TYGACIL prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2011.
- Integrated results of 2 phase 3 studies comparing tigecycline and levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008; 61: 329-338
- Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline for treatment of infectious disease.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 1162-1172
TEFLARO [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Forest Laboratories, Inc.; 2012.
Joint Commission. Specifications Manual for National Hospital Quality Measures. http://www.jointcommission.org/specifications_manual_for_national_hospital_inpatient_quality_measures/. Accessed November 15, 2011.
- FOCUS 1: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 66: iii19-iii32
- FOCUS 2: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 66: iii33-iii44
- Day 4 clinical response of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.Infect Dis Clin Pract. 2012; 20: 254-260
- Integrated safety summary of FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2 trials: phase III randomized, double-blind studies evaluating ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 66: iii53-iii59
- Integrated analysis of CANVAS 1 and 2: phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ceftaroline versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in complicated skin and skin-structure infection.Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 51: 641-650
- The rationale for revising the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentration interpretive criteria for Staphylococcus aureus.Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: 1208-1215
- Vancomycin MIC creep in non-vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), vancomycin-susceptible clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) blood isolates from 2001-2005.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007; 60: 788-794
- Microbiology of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45: S165-S170
- The clinical significance of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration in Staphylococcus aureus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: 755-771
- Activity of linezolid against 3,251 strains of uncommonly isolated gram-positive organisms: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51: 1491-1493
- Spectrum and potency evaluation of a new oxazolidinone, linezolid: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1998-2000.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002; 43: 65-73
Zyvox prescribing information. New York, NY: Pfizer, Inc., 2012.
- LEADER Program results for 2009: an activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid using 6,414 clinical isolates from 56 medical centers in the United States.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 3684-3690
- Clinical outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit.JAMA. 2010; 303 (2260-2264)
- Worldwide assessment of linezolid's clinical safety and tolerability: comparator-controlled phase III studies.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003; 47: 1824-1831
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☆This work was financially supported by Forest Research Institute, Inc.