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Salvage thrombolysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for massive pulmonary embolism during the distal femur fracture surgery

Published:November 09, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2015.11.019
      Distal femur fracture is a major risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE) [
      • Widimský Jiří
      Diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.
      ,
      • Uresandi F.
      • Monreal M.
      • García-Bragado F.
      • Domenech P.
      • Lecumberri R.
      • Escribano P.
      • et al.
      National consensus on the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism.
      ]. Because of to the disease frequently presenting with rapid hemodynamic deterioration, massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) during the operation is a common life-threatening illness associated with poor clinical outcome. It is a primary cause of hospital morbidity and mortality [
      • Roger V.L.
      • Go A.S.
      • Lloyd-Jones D.M.
      • Benjamin E.J.
      • Berry J.D.
      • Borden W.B.
      • et al.
      Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
      ]. The optimal treatment of MPE is controversial, although various methods have been developed and improved.
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