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Emergency services response to elder abuse and neglect – Then and now

  • Author Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Kevin Nowak
    Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Spectrum Health - Michigan State University Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Lindsey Ouellette
    Footnotes
    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Todd Chassee
    Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Spectrum Health - Michigan State University Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Grand Rapids, MI, United States

    Kent County Emergency Medical Services, Inc., Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Jason P. Seamon
    Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Spectrum Health - Michigan State University Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Jeffrey Jones
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    Affiliations
    Spectrum Health - Michigan State University Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Grand Rapids, MI, United States

    Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI, United States
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 15 Michigan St NE Suite 701, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
    2 15 Michigan St NE 736, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, United States.
Published:February 27, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.02.036
      As defined by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), elder abuse is an intentional act, or failure to act, by a caregiver or another person in a relationship involving an expectation of trust that causes or creates a risk of harm to an older (aged ≥60) adult [
      • Hall J.E.
      • Karch D.L.
      • Crosby A.E.
      Elder abuse surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended Core data elements for use in elder abuse surveillance, version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): national center for injury prevention and control, centers for disease control and prevention.
      ]. Forms of elder abuse include physical abuse, sexual abuse or abusive sexual contact, emotional or psychological abuse, neglect, and financial abuse or exploitation [
      • Hall J.E.
      • Karch D.L.
      • Crosby A.E.
      Elder abuse surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended Core data elements for use in elder abuse surveillance, version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): national center for injury prevention and control, centers for disease control and prevention.
      ]. All states within the US have a mandatory reporting statute for elder abuse however states vary with respect to who are considered mandated reporters and what actions require reporting [
      • Stetson University College of Law
      ]. Identification of elder abuse by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel is of great importance as geriatric patients are four times more likely to be transported to an emergency department (ED) by ambulance than younger adults [
      • Revue E.
      • Wallace J.
      • Punekar S.
      Prehospital management of older patients.
      ]. EMS workers are also the only healthcare providers who routinely enter patients' homes and are often the first medically-trained personnel to evaluate ill and injured elderly patients [
      • Jones J.S.
      • Walker G.
      • Krohmer J.
      To report or not to report: emergency services response to elder abuse.
      ]. The purpose of this study was to survey prehospital EMS personnel in Michigan to determine their attitudes toward elder abuse and knowledge of mandatory reporting laws, and to gather information regarding their experience with this problem. A secondary objective was to compare the attitudes and experiences of EMS personnel to a similar Michigan survey performed in 1995 [
      • Jones J.S.
      • Walker G.
      • Krohmer J.
      To report or not to report: emergency services response to elder abuse.
      ].

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      References

        • Hall J.E.
        • Karch D.L.
        • Crosby A.E.
        Elder abuse surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended Core data elements for use in elder abuse surveillance, version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): national center for injury prevention and control, centers for disease control and prevention.
        2016
        • Stetson University College of Law
        Mandatory reporting statutes for elder abuse.
        ([accessed 12 February 2018])
        • Revue E.
        • Wallace J.
        • Punekar S.
        Prehospital management of older patients.
        in: Nickel C. Bellou A. Conroy S. Geriatric emergency medicine. Cham, Springer2018: 3-16
        • Jones J.S.
        • Walker G.
        • Krohmer J.
        To report or not to report: emergency services response to elder abuse.
        Prehosp Disaster Med. 1995; 10: 96-100