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Does hospital mode of arrival influence women's decisions to participate in research?

Published:November 14, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.11.002
      The National Institutes of Health recommends that research studies recruit enough subjects to address relevant gender differences [ ,
      • US Food and Drug Administration
      FDA research, policy, and workshops on women in clinical trials.
      ,
      • National Institutes of Health
      NIH peer review, guidelines for the review of inclusion on the basis of sex/gender, race, ethnicity, and age in clinical research.
      ]. Recruiting volunteers for research, however, is a complicated process. Though some work has informed the barriers to and facilitators of research participation amongst women and other minority subjects [
      • Harrison D.A.
      Volunteer motivation and attendance decisions: competitive theory testing in multiple samples from a homeless shelter.
      ,
      • National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women’s Health
      Review of the literature: primary barriers and facilitators to participation in clinical research.
      ,
      • Russell S.L.
      • et al.
      Beliefs of women's risk as research subjects: a four-city study examining differences by sex and by race/ethnicity.
      ,
      • Pribulick M.
      • Willams I.C.
      • Fahs P.S.
      Strategies to reduce barriers to recruitment and participation.
      ,
      • Steers W.
      • et al.
      Challenges of conducting multi-center, multi-disciplinary urinary incontinence clinical trials: experience of the urinary incontinence treatment network.
      ,
      • Leonard A.
      • et al.
      Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations.
      ], few have focused on how pre-hospital factors, specifically mode of Emergency Department (ED) arrival, may influence the recruitment of female subjects in emergency research settings. Traditionally the point of entry into care, the ED is increasingly becoming the focal point for addressing several public health challenges, such as the growing opioid epidemic, stroke care, and traumatic brain injury. Patients may enter the ED setting via ambulance or walk-in/ambulatory means. Since ambulance use is often associated with higher acuity [
      • Shah M.N.
      • et al.
      The epidemiology of emergency medical services use by older adults: an analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.
      ,
      • Shah M.N.
      • et al.
      The epidemiology of emergency medical services use by children: an analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.
      ], users may be less inclined to engage in voluntary research activities, that may not be immediately related to their clinical care. The present study attempts to address a gap in the literature, by exploring how ED mode of arrival (ambulance vs non-ambulance) affects research participation in women. We hypothesized that women arriving via ambulance will be less willing to participate in research, compared with those arriving as walk-in/ambulatory patients.
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